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Bangladesh is an agro- based country and almost attained self-sufficiency in cereal food. Fruit production is very limited and the consumption of fruit, we depend on foreign supplies. It offers a highly congenial environment for the growth of varieties of fruits like banana, papaya, pineapple, litchi, jackfruit etc, which are more nutritious compared to the imported foreign fruits like orange, grape, apple etc. Our fruit production is not sufficient to meet up our domestic demand.

Fruits are the oldest food of mankind. Taking fruits everyday strengthens our vitality. Nutrition scientists advise us to take at least 115 grams of fruit everyday for balanced diet. But at present our country has the
capacity to provide each of us with only 38 grams of fruits every day.

We need fruits for economic reasons too. Most fruit trees live for years. Fruit farming is quite profitable although it may be a little expensive at the beginning. Fruits can be processed for preservation in many ways. For example, different kinds of healthy foods like jam, jelly, candy, etc. and drinks can be made from fruits. Some fruits can be dehydrated for marketing.Most fruits available in our country do not grow in the cold countries. It gives us an opportunity to export our fruits there for foreign currency.Trees usually bear two kinds of flowers: female and male. The ovum of a female flower or part of it gradually grows in health, size and shape into a fruit. Many a time the whole flower evolves into a fruit.

Classification of fruiy

Fruits are mainly divided into two categories: (a) Periodical and (b) Seasonal.

(a) Periodical fruits

Different fruits grow in different countries. Fruits may be classified into two other groups on the basis of the amount of time the trees take to bear them after plantation:

Short term fruits and long term fruits.
Short term fruits:
Fruits that grow on trees in two or less than two years after
plantation are called short term fruits. For example:
banana, pineapple, papaya, etc.
Long term fruits:
Fruits that grow on trees in more than two years after plantation are called long term fruits. For example: mangoes, jackfruits, wood apple, etc.
The table below shows the list of short-term and long-term fruits:

(b) Seasonal fruits.

Fruits may be classified on the basis of the seasons in which they grow. For example: Summer fruits, Winter fruits and All season fruits.
Summer fruits:
Fruits available in our country from mid April to mid October [Baishakh to Ashwin] are called Summer fruits. Mango, berry, litchi, jackfruit, guava, hog plum, pineapple, sapota, chalta, lemon, palmyra, etc. are the most available ones.
However, lemon, pineapple and guava are found almost round the year.
Winter fruits:
We do not usually have many indigenous winter fruits. The main fruits of this kind are orange, olive and wood apple.

All season fruits:
Some fruits are available in our country throughout the year. For example: Banana, papaya and coconut.

To support the operation and field activities. GPKS has deployed adequate number of experience and socially committed fellows. At present 79 staffs are working and most of them are technical professionals.

What we teach our people

Preservation of fruits:
Preservation of fruits means protection of fruits from getting rotten. If you want to preserve fruits, you need to know why fruits rot.
The main causes of rotting are as follows:

  • Too much heat; too much humidity
  • Germs causing decomposition
  • Reaction in the inner cells of fruits
  • Presence of much water in fruit

You can preserve fruits if you can halt the causes mentioned above to work on them. Some methods of preservation of fruits are given below:
  • Preserve in low temperature
  • Preserve after destroying the germs in the fruits
  • Preserve by reducing the water content of the fruits or by drying them.
  • Preserve in air tight packets or containers
  • Preserve by processing fruits into foods.

Poor cropping is considered to be a serious and major problem that faces by fruit growers. This problem is attributed mainly to poor fruit retention and/or extensive dropping of flowers and fruits.

Irrigation is a vital management practice in fruit production regions of the world, particularly in arid and semi-arid climates. Better understanding and utilization of tree physiological parameters is needed for management of irrigation water.

Despite the variations in the available water resources among fruit producing countries, the question of frequency of irrigation and amount of water applied to fruit crops is a common concern.

Fruit tree form and structure have been maintained by pruning. Tree training, however, is a much more efficient and desirable way to develop form and structure. Training is a practice that allows tree growth to be directed into a desired shape and form. Training young fruit trees is essential for proper tree development.

In case of different fruits, the respondents respond that they applied fertilizer, irrigation, hormone, mulching, thinning, training and pruning for homestead fruit production. In consideration of fertilizer application, for orange cultivation the highest 100% fruit growers applied fertilizers but for coconut cultivation around 75.56% did not use any fertilizers. In context of irrigation, the highest 84.44% fruit growers applied irrigation in papaya cultivation, while highest 95.56% fruit growers did not use any irrigation for banana cultivation in their homestead areas. For hormone application, the highest 55.56% respondents applied hormone for mango cultivation, whereas the highest 100% respondents did not applied hormone for hog plum, banana, lemon, coconut, star fruit, pummel and wax apple cultivation. In consideration of mulching, the highest 64.44% respondents used mulched materials for banana cultivation, while the highest 95.56% respondents did not used any mulch materials for jujube cultivation. For pruning in homestead fruit cultivation, the highest 100% respondents practiced pruning in jujube plant but the highest 100% respondents did not practiced and pruning for coconut trees. In consideration of thinning, the highest 40.00% respondents practiced thinning in papaya cultivation, while the highest 100% respondents did not practiced any thinning activities for coconut cultivation. For training, the highest 42.22% respondents fruit growers practiced training in jujube plant.